Evaluating Gin Roller Covering Materials for Cotton Double Roller Gins
Vijayan Gurumurthy Iyer1,2
1Dr.Vijayan Gurumurthy Iyer Techno-Economic-Environmental Study and Check Consultancy Services, Vijayan Gurumurthy Iyer GSTIN/UIN: 33AIZPG9735D1ZW, OLPE Counsellor and Co-ordinator, The EDI of India; 2Professional Engineer, Engineering Council of India (ECI), A-2/31, Kendriya Vihar-II, Paruthipattu, Avadi, Chennai-600 071, India
Abstract: The roller gin can be defined as a cotton gin in which the lint cotton is pulled from the seed-cotton (or kapas) by a roller covered with vegetable-tanned leather from walrus (roller leather) and assisted by a fixed knife and moving knife. Walrus (a large sea mammal) has a thick layer of blubber (Whale fat). Blubber is an important part of a walrus marine mammal’s anatomy. It stores energy, insulates heat, and increases buoyancy. Energy is stored in the thick oily layer of blubber. Blubber covers the entire body of walruses except for their fins, flippers, and flukes. Walrus leather is extremely exotic. It has a deep and strong grainer skin and texture interfibrillar that is situated between fibrils for lint cotton cellulose fiber adherence. The innovative chrome-free leather product does not contain hazardous chrome heavy metal and acidic substance. In a standard chrome tanned leather, there is chromium content of between 3% to 5% of chromium fixed to the fibril, and the standard value for extractable Cr(III) is 50-1000 ppm (mg/kg) as per the tanning process condition and tightly bound to the collagen fibril proteins. Chromium as Cr(VI) is known to be toxic to animals and humans so it needs to be used and handed under extremely high safety precautions. The permissible environmentally friendly limit of total chromium in leather is 0.1 ppm (mg/kg). About 85% of the World’s leather is chrome tanned leather. The covering leather washer packing is chrome tanned leather from buffalo skins for packing the rollers of cotton ginning machinery. The covering leather hide washer or "Packing" used for cotton roller gin roller is very important to the operation and maintenance of the gin and is supposed to be a major expense item for a commercial double roller (DR) ginning machine. It is important to conduct research experiments on various roller covering materials to find a suitable material that enables faster ginning, longer wearing results, maintenance of good fibre quality, cheaper and eco-friendliness. A major research project was performed at the Belgaum roller ginning industries to compare the performance of different roller covering materials.
Keywords: Covering, chromium, eco-friendly, roller, ginning, performance, material, property.