Environmental Health Impact Assessment of Chrome Composite Leather-Clad Rollers Used by Indian Cotton Roller Ginning Industries and Design and Development of Eco-Friendly Alternative
Vijayan Gurumurthy Iyer
Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation (KLEF), Deemed to be University and DEBM Counsellor of The EDI of India
Abstract: This article discusses the pollution and contamination caused by Chrome Composite Leather-Clad (CCLC) rollers commonly used in cotton roller ginning industries and suggests an alternative roller ginning process. The environmental health impacts of projects, plans, programs or policies should be considered in the decision-making process . Because of the importance of these concerns, particularly in developing countries, an environmental health impact assessment (EHIA) has been conducted in Indian cotton roller ginning factories during the research year 1998 to 2018 . Environmental health impact assessment (EHIA) can be defined as the systematic identification and evaluation of the potential health impacts of proposed projects, plans, programs, policies, or legislative actions relative to the physical-chemical, biological, cultural, and socio-economical components of the total environmental health. CCLC rollers contain about 18,000 to 36,000 mg/kg (ppm) total chromium in trivalent and hexavalent forms, which are toxic to human health and carcinogenic. When seed-cotton is processed in double roller (DR) ginning machines, the lint is contaminated with chromium, and chromium particles are carried into the spun yarns and cotton by-products. Specifically, due to persistent rubbing of the leather-clad roller over the stationary knife during the ginning process, the lint cotton is contaminated with about 140 to 1,990 ppm of chromium, and the spun yarns and cotton by-products contain about 100 to 200 ppm, far in excess of the standard limit of 0.1 ppm. Gin and mill workers are directly exposed to this carcinogenic substance . To offset this problem, pollution-free rubberized cotton fabric (RCF) rollers have been fabricated, verified and validated successfully in cotton roller gins. This eliminates chromium contamination and pollution during the ginning process. It is conducted that the environmental health impacts of project, plans, programs or policies should be considered in the decision-making process for sustainable development.
Keywords: Carcinogenic problems, Chromium, Seed-Cotton, Eco-friendly, Ginning Roller.